jeudi 9 février 2012

Women Leaders in Africa

1623-63 Queen Nzinga M'Bandi of
N'Dongo and Matamba (Angola and Congo)
1623-26 Governor of Luanda for the Portuguese

Also Known as Pande Doña Ana I. Souza or Jinga, she assigned women important government offices. Constantly driven east by the Portuguese, Nzinga organized a powerful guerrilla army, conquered the Matamba, and developed alliances to control the slave routes. She even allied with the Dutch, who helped her stop the Portuguese advancement. After a series of decisive setbacks, Nzinga negotiated a peace treaty with the Portuguese, but still refused to pay tribute to the Portuguese king. Two of her war leaders were reputedly her sisters, her council of advisors contained many women, among others her sisters, Princess Grace Kifunji and Mukumbu, the later Queen Barbara, and women were called to serve in her army. She was daughter of N'Gola Kiluanzi Kia Samba and succeeded her brother. Lived (1581-1663).

1623-47 Member of the Council of Government Princess Grace of Matamba and Ndongo (Angola and Congo)

Before her christening she was named Kifunji, and together with her sisterMukambu, she was closest aide and members of the government of their sister, Queen Nzinga. Also an important religious leader. In October 1647 she was drowned by the enemy as they retreated. She lived (1587-1647)

Ca. 1630-ca. 60 Queen Nana Yita of Nsuta (Ghana)
Succeeded Queen Nana Ikuro and succeeded by son Nana Dansu Abeo. In 1701 it was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

Ca. 1630 Queen Nana Aberewa Ampen of Juaben (Ghana)
Succeeded by son, Nana Ampomben Afera.

Unnamed Zanzibar Lady1652-1697 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

Unnamed Sudanese Woman1661-67 Ret Abudok nya Bwoc of Shilluk (Sudan)
The Shilluks have a divine king who symbolizes the whole realm, and they created life sized representations of their first king, Nyikang. They also made clay pipe bowls, hyena figurines, and masks. The Shilluk are agriculturalists and herdsmen. They raise cattle, sheep, and goats. The men hunt, herd the animals, and milk the livestock. Both sexes take part in the agricultural work. Historically they were unified under one King or Reth chosen from the sons of previous kings. Abudok was the only female ruler of the people.

1663-66 Queen Regnant Barbara of N'dongo and Matamba (Congo and Angola)

When her sister, Queen Nijinga, became Queen in 1623, she was appinted as Member of the Council of Government. Before her christening, she had been named Mukumbu (Mukambu, Makumba). Her sister had tried to marry her off to her close ally, João Guterres, but the Portugese protested since he was already married. Her reign was marked by civil war and she was killed by forces loyal to the general Njinga Mona. João succeeded 1669-70 but was also killed. She lived (1584-1663).

1681-1721 Queen Verónica I Guterres Kangala Kingwanda of N'Dongo and Matamba (Angola and Congo)

Also known as Cangala Quinguanda, she was daughter of King João Guterres Ngola Kanini I. Her brother was killed during a battle that Matamba won against the Portuguese. Nevertheless she decided to treat for peace, signing the agreement with Portugal in 1683. But in 1689 she attacked the Portuguese in Cahenda in the Dembos Region, which was disputed between Ndongo, Kongo, and Portugal. Around 1701, Luca da Caltanisetta, the prefect of the Capuchin mission in Angola wrote to her asking to re-establish the mission which had fallen vacant, but she answered by expressing her concern that "it pained her to see her children die without baptism" but that she was "disgusted with the whites, and she would "not see any of them in her court with the missionaries." She sought once again to expand the kingdom into Portuguese domains in 1706, and it was probably for this reason that she had ambassadors in the court of Kongo's King Pedro IV that year. But her attempts to do this were thwarted, as Portuguese forces were too strong and she abandoned the attempt. Nevertheless, a state of constant low level conflcit between her army and the Portuguese at Ambaca and Cahenda led to the virtual depopulation of the country to the west of Matamba, as the people either fled or were captured and deported to the Americas. Those captured by the Portuguese tended to be sent to Brazil, those captured by her were often sold to Vili merchants, based in the Kingdom of Loango to the north, and subsequently sold to English, Dutch, or French merchants who frequented that coast. She was succeeded by her son, Afonso I Álvares de Pontes. She (d. 1721).

Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita1684-1706 Religious Leader and Prophet Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita in Congo
Portuguese forces had defeated the Kongo, the Christianity of Afonso I had fallen into syncretism, a mix of Christian and African traditional religions, and three ruling families contended for power. Into this political and cultural vacuum a number of messianic prophets arose to proclaim their socioreligious visions. The most important of these was Kimpa Vita, a young girl who believed herself possessed by the spirit of St. Anthony of Padua, a popular Catholic saint and miracle worker. She began preaching in the Kongolese city of San Salvador, which she said God wished restored as the capital. Her call to unity drew strong support among the peasants, who flocked to the city, which Kimpa identified as the biblical Bethlehem. She told her followers that Jesus, Mary and other Christian saints were really Kongolese. Kimpa conspired with the general of Pedro IV, one of the contenders for the throne, but she was captured. Both Kimpa and her baby - conceived by her "guardian angel" - were burned at the stake for heresy, at the instigation of Capuchin missionaries. The Antonian movement, which Kimpa began, outlasted her. The Kongo king Pedro IV used it to unify and renew his kingdom. She was burned at the stake in 1706.

A Queen Mother of Benin1692-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
She was mother of Oreoghenen, who ruled 1689-1700. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital. She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders.

Unnamed Asante Queen Mother1700-ca. 1750 1st Asantehemaa Nana Nyarko Kusi Amoa of Asante (Ghana)

There are different interpretation of the role of the Queen Mother of the Asante, but it seems that she held the important office of "ohemaa" - the second highest political position in the state. Theoretically an Ashanti Queen Mother was next to the king in the sense that she automatically took upon the king's responsibilities should a condition arise which made it later for the latter to administer. She was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women.Nyaaako was mother of king Opoku Ware I (1720-50) and the 4th Asantahemaa Konadu Yaadom I, who was in office (Ca.1778-1809).

Ca. 1700-40 Queen Alemba of Sambi (Angola)
She reigned jointly with Ului Nonudu. Sambi or Sambu was one of the large cluster of Ovimbundu States, which was founded at various times from around 1600.

1700s Chieftainess Kaipkire of the Herero Tribe (Namibia)
She led her people in battles against British slave traders. There are records of Herero women fighting German soldiers as late as 1919.

17../18.. The Omukama of The Bashambo Dynasty in Mpororo (Uganda)

She was Queen Mother Regnant of the kingdom of Mpororo, which was founded circa 1650. It covered much of the Kigezi region of Uganda and what is now northern Rwanda.

1703-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
She was mother of king Ewuakpe of Benin (1700-12). His successor Ozuere only reigned for one year and did not appoint his mother Iyoba of Uselu since this traditionally happened after three years of reign by the king.

1704-08 Reigning Princess Tassi Hangbe of Abomey (Benin)
She does not appear in the official king's lists but it is generally agreed that she ruled after her brother Akaba (1685-1704) and was followed on the throne by another brother, Agaja, and became one of Abomey (or Dahomey)'s most important rulers, who reigned until 1740.

Unnamed Queen of Baule

Ca. 1710-ca. 60 Queen Regnant Asea Poku of Baule (Ashante-Brong) (Cote d'Ivoire)

The Baule belong to the Akan peoples who inhabit Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. During the Asante rise to power the Baule Queen, Aura Poku, was in direct competition with the Asante king. When the Asante prevailed, the Queen led her people away to the land they now occupy. The male descendant of Aura Poku still lives in the palace she established. Succeeded by niece.

Unnamed Ethiopian Princess - An European Impression

1724 Politically Active Empress Uelete Rufael of Ethiopia

Also known as Woizero Walatta Rufael, she engaged in a succession-struggle in favour of her son Susnyjos, whose father was Dejazmatch Wolde Giyorgis, Governor of Semien(d. 1706). She was daughter of Emperor Iyasu the Great and sister of Emperor Adbar Sagad II Bakaffa (1721-30).

Berhan Mugasa Mentewab1730-56 Regent Dowager Empress Berhan Mugasa Mentewab of Ethiopia
After the death of her husband the Emperor Bakaffa, Empress Mentewab scrambled to ensure the succession of her underage son Eyasu II, and had herself crowned as co-ruler to help him govern. The Empress played a leading role during his reign, and following his murder, in the reign of his son Eyoas I as well. After the murder of her grandson Eyoas I, her influence decreased considerably, but she remained a deeply respected figure. Although she had been involved in raging disagreements with her grandson during his life, the murder of Emperor Eyoas I on the orders of her son-in-law, Ras Michael Sehul, horrified her, and was to cause her life-long sorrow, she refused to return to the capital. The Empress would live to see two more Emperors on the throne, and officials continued to pay respectful visits to her although she retired from political activity. Her second husband was GerazmatchIyasu, with whom she had three daughters before he was killed on the orders of her son, she lived (ca. 1710-73).

Queen Mother of Benin1738-? The Iyoba Ede of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of King Eresonyen of Benin (1735-50), whosuccessfully fought the rebellious chiefs and restored power and legitimacy to the Benin Monarchy. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital. She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process.

1740-97 Kpojito Hwanjile of Abomey (Benin)
Also known as Naye Wandjele, she was the reign mate of King Tegbesu, whom she helped gain power after Agaja's death after a civil war with the designated heir. She - and possibly a successor trough positional succession - was actively involved in Abomey politics for at least 60 years. She was highly skilled in the supernatural, and she is believed to have been responsible for drastically changing the religious life of the kingdom. she enhanced the position of the king, by controlling the people via vodun and establishing a couple of creator gods - and they thereby set up a joint monarchy which controlled both the spirits and the earthly sphere. In 1797 she was involved in the murder of king Agonglo, and she was buried alive.

1746 Sultan Mwana Mimi Hadiga of Patta-Pate and Witu (Kenya)
There were 4 sultans that year. Pate is an island of the coast of Kenya.

Around 1750 Queen Kapango of Mbunza (Namibia)
She was the sister of the Uukwangali Queen Mate I. She ruled around 1750 and settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom.

Around 1750 Hompa Mate I of Uukwangali (Namibia)
In the Kavango, the earliest recorded Uukwangali Queen was Mate I. She ruled around 1750. She left the Mashi area and settled in present-day Kavango, west of Nkurenkuru in today's Angola. Her sister, Kapango, settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom. The possible successor of Hompa Mate I was Queen Nankali (between 1750 and 1775).

1750-75 Hompa Nankali of Uukwangali (Namibia)
The possible successor of Mate I was Nakali.

Before 1750 Queen Masamba Omubitokati of Bunyoro-Kitara (Uganda)
Olimi III was king (1710-30) and Duhaga I Cwa reigned (1731-82).

Until 1750 Chieftainess Hoho of The Khoikhoi (South Africa)

1713 a smallpox epidemic had decimated the Khoikhoi (previsously known as Hottentot) and in 1750 she was defeated by the Xhosa, and the tribe was assimilated into the Xhosa, and the only trace of them today is the klick-sound in the Xhosa language.

Unnamed Baule ladyCa. 1750-60 Queen Awura Danse Poukou of Baule (The Ivory Coast)

She succeeded Asak Poku, who reigned from the beginning of the century, and was succeeded by a niece, whose name is not known.

Unnamed Ashaner lady1750-... 2nd Asantehemaa Nana Nkatia Ntem Abamoo of Asante (Ghana)
As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reign of king Kusi Obodom (1750-64), she was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women. Nana Nkatia was succeeded by Kaua Afriye at a not known time.

Mask of a Queen Mother of Benin

Ca. 1752-? Iyoba Ohagha II of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Akengbua of Benin (1750-1804). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital. She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders.

Unnamed Baule lady

From 1760 Queen of Baule (Ashanti-Brong) (Cote d'Ivoire)

She succeeded her aunt, Awura Danse Poukou. Since then the kingdom have been ruled by kings, who inherit their position along matrilineal lines. There are various subchiefs in charge of the kings' local populations, and all the chiefs rely on political advisors who help in the decision making process.

Until 1768 The Queen Regnant of Kongo (N'Dongo and Matamba or Ngola and Mbundu) (Angola and Congo)
She was killed in 1768 and followed on the throne by another woman, whose name is also unknown.

1768... The Queen Regnant of Kongo (N'Dongo and Matamba or Ngola and Mbundu) (Angola and Congo)
Her predecessor was killed.

1770-93 Denkyirahene Amoako Atta Yiadom of Denkyira (Ghana)
Reigned after Amoako Atta Kuma (1725-70). The state was founded in 1500 under the name of Agona, but was renamed in 1620. In 1701 it was defeated by the Asante and became a tributary kingdom.

Unnamed Ladies of the Abomey Court1774-89 Kpojito Chai of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Kpengla, she is not known to have been a priestess, but the aim of her office was to serve as compliment to the king and in some aspects as his double, not the least in the spiritual world.

Around 1775-85 Queen Nankali of Uukwangali (Angola - Namibia)
During her reign friction developed with the neighboring communities and the Kwangali moved from Makuzu to Sihangu (near Mukukuta). Succeeded by Queen Simbara, during whose reign the Kwangali group moved down to Namibia.

1777-78 Regent The Asantehemaa Nana Akua Afriyie of Asante (Ghana)
It is not exactly known when she took office as Asantehemaa as successor of Nana Nketia Ntem Abamoo. She was mother of King Osei Kwadwo (Around 1764-77) and of three daughters. The oldest, Akyamaa was the mother of king Osei Kwame (Around 1777-98) and the 6th Asantehemaa. The second daughter, Sewaa Okuwa was mother of the 5th Asantehemaa. Akua Afriye was succeeded by the third daughter, Konadu Yaadom I as the 4th Asantehemaa.

Ca.1778-1809 4th Asantehemaa Nana Kwaadu Yiadom I of Asante (Ghana)
Succeeded mother, Akua Afriye as Queen Mother and was mother of four kings;Osei Kwame, Opoku Fofie, (1798-1801), Osei Bonsu (1801-24) and Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-33) and of two Asantehemaas, Nana Ama Serwaa and Yaa Dufie. She lived (1752-1809) .

1782 Chief Ntsusa of the amaRharhabe (South Africa)
She was daughter of the Xhosa Chief Rharhabe, who was killed in battle against the Thembu tribe together with his son. Ntsusa's nephews were both underage, and she was appointed chief by the Xhosa king, while the court quarreled over who should be chief. A clan with many chiefs had developed under her tutelage, but was accused of theft of some Boer military horses, and therefore a commando group was sent out against the clan, which had been named Ntsusa after her. She (d. 1826).

1789-97 Kpojito Senume of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Agonglo. During his reign a new the cult of the Christian God was placed alongside the old gods, and a female relative of one of his wifes, Sophie (Afro-Dutch woman) was placed in charge of this new vodun -or faith.

Queen in CameroonAround 1790 Queen Logenge of Bimba (Cameroon)
Her husband, King Kwa of Duala, was co-regent of the Kingdom Bimba until 1792.

1797-1818 Kpojito Kentobasin of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Adandozan. The Kpojito were not Queen Mothers, but they were elected/appointed by the kings after they ascended to the throne, and were seen as complimentary powers to that of the king.

1800-54 Rain Queen Modjadji I of Balobedu (South Africa)

Chief Mugodo was warned by the ancestral spirits of a plot by his sons to overthrow him. To fulfill the desires of the spirits he had all his sons killed and told his daughter that according to the wishes of the sprits he must marry her on his death. By doing this he ensured that the new heir to his throne would be a Queen and thus a new dynasty of woman was founded. When the new Queen gave birth to a son that was fathered by her own father, he was strangled at birth. Her second child was a girl, and she signaled the start of the female dynasty. This was the first Modjadji and ever since the Queen lives in complete seclusion deep in the forest where she practice the age-old secretive rituals to make rain. She committed ritual suicide in 1855.

Unnamed lady of the Nanas1800/35-60s Chief Games of Awa-Khoi - "The Red Nation" (Namibia)
Succeeded brother, Nanieb II, and was succeeded by nephew as chief of the Nanas or Hottentots in Hoachanas -Nanaqualand.

1800-18 Queen Mate II of Uukwangali (Namibia)
She succeeded Queen Simbara and was succeeded by king Siremo.

Around 1800 The Omukama of Nshenyi (Uganda)
Her predecessor, Rukaari, reigned from 1752, and she was succeeded by Kabandwa at a not known time.

Unnamed Nigerian QueenAround 1800 Queen Ebelejonu of Igala (Nigeria)
The Igala of old were part of an ethnic community known as Igala-Mela based in Nigeria. This clan primarily consisted of the Hausa, Igbo, Nupe and Igbira peoples. The Igala were mainly ruled by their ata or king traditionally named Ayeba.

18... Queen Mother MmaMane of baTlôkwa (South Africa)
In the early 1800s she fought to preserve her tribal lands during the wars between Shaka Zulu and Matiwane. She was succeeded by Kgôsi Mokotjo, who reigned until 1817.

18.. Sheha Fatima bint Ali of Tumbatu (Tanzania)
Sheha is a version of Sheik. She succeeded her father.

18… Chief Mashina of Mamba (Tanzania)
Widow of chief Mafaluke and succeeded chief Malamba.

18.. Chief Malamba of Mamba (Tanzania)
Succeeded Chief Mashina .

18.. Chief Mamka of Kibosho (Tanzania)
The chiefdom is situated near Kilimanjaro.

18… Queen (Askaya) Adama Yahimonzon of Kokoro (Niger)

Succeeded by Queen Kodyo.

18… Queen (Askaya) Kodyo Yahimonzon of Kokoro (Niger)

Succeeded Queen Adama. Her successor ruled until 1899.

Unnamed Royal Lady of Angola - Congo18… Queen Tembo of Cokwe (Angola)
The principality is situated in the North Eastern part of Angola on the boarder to Congo.

18.. Leader Princess Mukaya of the Luba People (Congo-Brazzaville)
She led her warriors in battle against enemy tribes and rival factions towards the end of the 19th century. Initially she fought alongside her brother Kasongo Kalambo, after he was killed in battle she assumed sole control of the empire stretched along the rain forest from Zaire to northern Zambia.

1807-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Obanosa of Benin (1804-16), his successor Ogbebo reigned for less than a year. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital. She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders.

1809-ca. 19 5th Asantehemaa Nana Adoma Akosua of Asante (Ghana)
1814 Regent
As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reign of Osei Tutu Kwame Asiba (1804-24), she was left in charge of the government while the king went to the coast to visit his troops on the battlefield there. In the period, Adoma Akosua received a Dutch embassy with which she discussed trade.Succeeded on the post by cousin, Ama Sewaa, and lived (1765-1819).

1815-16 The Ndlovukati Lakubheka Mndzebele of Swaziland
The Queen Mother was the widow of Ndvungunye (1780-1815) and after his death she adopted Sobhuza I and named him king. She then became Joint Head of State.

Ndlorukazi Nandi1815-27 Queen Mother Ndlorukazi Nandi of the Zulu Kingdom (South Africa)
Mother of Shaka Zulu. At some point they were forced into exile, but she managed to maintain her son's position.

Mask of Queen Mother of BeninCa. 1816-? Iyoba Omozogie of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of Osemwede of Benin (1815-48). She is said to have been very wealthy and to have assisted her son's conquests of outlying areas.

1817-24 Queen Mother Monyale a Mothaba of baTlôkwa (South Africa)
She was later called MmaNtatise Sia Mosayane and was succeeded by king Sekonyela a Mokotjo.

1817-26 The 24th Okyehene and the Ohemaa Nana Afia Dokuaa ofOkyeman (Akyem Abuakwa) (Ghana)
The first and only woman to hold the office of ruler as well as that of Ohemaa (Queenmother) in the history of Akyem Abuakwa, and ascended the Ofori stool in 1817 in lieu of a male heir to her uncle, Kofi Asante (1811-1816). She maintained the tradition of resistance to Asante overlordship and joined an anti-Asante alliance of coastal chiefs and the British Administration on the coast. She personally fought at the head of the Akyem Abuakwa contingent at the battle of Katamanso in 1826. It was the allied victory at Datamanso and the ensuing Treaty of 1831 that liberated Akyem Abuakwa and the Southern states from Asante claims to suzerainty over them. Nana Dokua was also a first class administrator. She set up towns and villages into the present divisions for the purposes of war and administration, as well as preventing break-ups or revolts in her kingdom. She married Barima Twum Ampofo of the Oyoko clan of Barekeseso in Ashanti, whom she made the Asiakwahene. She had two male twins, who successively became kings after her death.

Unnamed Ladies of the Court of Abomey

1818-58 Kpojito Agontime of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of King Gezo (1818-58). She had been involved in the coup d'etat against king Agonglo in 1797 and was sold as a slave overseas. according to tradition that she established a number of Abomeyan deities in the new world. Tradition also relates that Gezo sent a delegation to Brazil to locate her and bring her back home.

1818-92 Chief Political Advisor Mariam of Kano (Nigeria)

She was the most trusted advisor of her husband, Emir Ibrahim (1818-46) and his successor Muhammad Bello (1883-92). According to Kano tradition her title was "Emir's wife" and her full name was Mariam bint Shehu Usman'dan Fodio.

Ca. 1819-24/33 6th Asantehemaa Nana Ama Sewaa of Asante (Ghana)
As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reigns of Osei Tutu Kwame Asiba (1804-24) and perhaps also trough that of Osei Yaw Akoto ( 1824-34), she acted as counsel, political acumen, historical perspective, and detailed knowledge of royal genealogy. She also helped to maintain the delicate balance of power between the elite and the powerful chiefs of the federated states. She was mother of King Nana Kwaku Dua I and Asanthemaa Nana Afia Sarpong, and lived (1763-1824/33).

1824/33-1835 7th Asantehemaa Yaa Dufie of Asante (Ghana)
She was Queen mother, during the reigns of Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-34), and Kwaku Dua I Panyin (ca. 1797-1834-67). She was succeeded on the post by her cousin, Nana Afia Sarpong, and lived (1770-1835).

1826-40 Queen Fatima Brima Kama Alikali of Konya-Teme (Sierra Leone)
She succeeded Alikali Kunia Banna (Jack Coby) and was succeeded by Moribu Kindo, who ruled as Alikali (King or Monarch) until 1853.

1828-43-? Chief Mali I of Khaha (South Africa)
After she became chief, she modeled the state after the President set by the rain-Queen of Lovedu, who remained unwed. Mali was succeeded by son.

Ranavalona I1828-1861 Queen Ranavalona I Rabodoandrianampoinimerina (Ramavo) of Madagascar
Also known as Ranavalo-Manjka I or Ranavalona I. She was married when she was almost a child to Radama, king of the "Hovas" and was accused of poisoning her husband in agreement with the protestant English missionaries. Radama left no descendants so English missionaries made their way to help her to gain the throne. After she became Queen, Ranavalona soon had most of her family relatives assassinated, she expelled foreigners and extended her rule all over the Island, with her 20.000 men Army. She died hated home and outside. She had her lover Rainitaiarivoy (1828-96) named Prime Minister. She was mother of King Radama II, and lived (1782/92-1861).

1828-29 Regent Princess Oantitsy of Boina (Madagascar)
1838-36 Queen Regnant
Andriantsoly was king (1822-32) until he was deposed and permently replaced by her. She was succeded by Queen Tsiomeko.

Unnamed Zanzibar LadyAround 1828 Chief Sheha Mwana wa Mwana of Tumbai (North Zanzibar)
Also known as Khadija bint Nwale, she succeeded father as Sheik of the state in North Zanzibar. Married to Hassan II of Zanzibarwho reigned before 1828 until 1845. Her successor reigned until 1856.

Unnamed Ethiopian Princess1831-40 Regent Princess Menem Leben Amande of Yejje (Ethiopia)
For son Ras Ali Aula. In 1840 she married Yohannes II and became Empress of Ethiopia. She must have become very powerful, because in 1842 he launched a rebellion against her. Menem was beaten by Melenik II in 1847.

1831 Head of Diplomatic Missions Akyaawaa Oyiakwan for Asante (Ghana)

She was a daughter of the Asantehene Osei Kwadwo (1764-77), and headed two different diplomatic missions that successfully negotiated the Maclean Treaty in April 1831 with the British and with the Danes at Christiansborg Castle in August of the same year. (b. ca. 1774).

Around 1834 Regent Queen Mother Bobjwale of BaNgwato
Until 1842 Ruler of the Chobe-Hwange Area (Botswana)

Second wife of Kgosi Kgari who was killed in a battle against the BaKalanga-BaNyayi at Matopos, she was appointed regent in the political vacuum following the death of her son, Khama II. Kgosi Kgari's other son, Sekgoma I broke away with a strong following, refusing to recognize her reign. Her forces was defeated in the following civil war. Most of the tribe then defected to Sekgoma I, forcing her to flee with her children and a small following to the BaKwena state where Sechele welcomed them. Subsequently, Sechele married her daughter, Mokgokong. Other sources indicate that later, Bobjwale with her supports moved to the Chobe-Hwange region where it is said that she ruled the scattered pockets of subordinate groups under BaNgwato rule until 1842.

1834.... Regent Dowager Sultana Guisti Fatima of Harrar (Ethiopia)
After the death of her husband, Amir 'Abu Bakar II ibn 'Abdu'l Munan, who had succeeded her father r 'Abdu'l Karim as Amir of Harrar in 1829, she was regent for her son, Amir Ahmad III ibn 'Abu Bakar (1834-52).

1835 Regent Queen Mother Muranthatisi of the Sotho (Lesotho)
For son. She lived (Ca. 1781-1835).

1835-1859 8th Asantehemaa Nana Afia Sapong of Asante (Ghana)
The daughter of king Osei Kwame (Around 1777-98), she was the second Queen Mother during the reign of Kwaku Dua I Panyin (ca. 1797-1834-67), and was succeeded as Asantehemaa by her only child, Aufa Kobi Serwaa Ampen I, who was in office (1859-1884). Afia Sapon lived (1790-1859).

1836-40 Reigning The Ndlovukati Lojiba Simelane of Swaziland
The Queen Mother was widow of Sobhuza I (1816-36) and in 1840 she named Mswati II as king and became Joint Head of State.

1836-40 Queen Regant Tsiomeko of Boina (Madagascar)

In 1839 she sought refuge in Nosy, which was part the Sakalava kingdom ofBoina, during the time of the domination of the Merina (Madagascar). Tsiomeko then requested protection from France and the following year, the Admiral de Hell and the Sakalava Kings signed a protectorate. The Kingdom was incorporated into Madagascar in 1840. She (d. 1843)

1838-48 The Dwabenhene Ama Sewa of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)
1843-48 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene
She took over as chief and led her people back to Asante from exile in Akyem Abuakwa in the south east of the Gold Coast after the death of her two sons in succession. Indeed, her daughter, Nana Afrakoma Panin and her granddaughter Nana Akua Saponmaa both held the dual offices of Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene (Queen Mother and King) concurrently.

Before 1840 Ras Zmama Worq of Shawa, Menz etc. (Ethiopia)
Her son Ras Shale Selassie married Ras Bezebesh of Marra Biet in 1840.

1840-47 Politically Influential Empress Menen of Ethiopia
Ruler of The Provinces North and West of the Tana Lake (Ethiopia)
Also known as Manam Liben-Amdie, she helped bring her husband, Emperor Yohannes III, on the throne. He ruled 1840-41, 1845 and 1850-51 and was deposed by rival fractions. In 1845 Lij Kassa Hailu rebelled against her and her son Ras Ali II, who held the office of Viceroy, he invaded and pillaged Dembiya in October 1846, conquered Gondar in January 1847, defeated and captured her in June 1847 but released her again in August. She was the widow of Ras Alula Gugsa, Governor of Gojjam, and daughter of Imam Liban Amade Kolase, chief of the Wollo of Warra Himenu, and lived (ca. 1800-50s).

Ca. 1840-51 Governor MaMotshiame of the Central Province of the Bulozi Kingdom (Zambia)
1851-58 Makololo Morêna of Bulozi (or Barotseland)
Her father, king Sebutuabe, appointed her as governor of a central province. On his deathbed, he appointed her as his successor. She later abdicated in favour of brother, Sekeletu. She died (1888).

Ca. 1842-48 Exile-Leader Mawa of Zulu Political Refugees (South Africa)
During the reigns of her two nephews Shaka (ca. 1815-28) and Dingane (1828-40) she served as liaison in a British military town. In 1840 another nephew ousted Dingane and, in ca. 1842, had his brother assassinated. Mawa fled with several thousand followers to Natal, where she gathered additional supporters and eventually negotiated a treaty with the new British administration to settle permanently in Natal. She (d. 1848).

1844-93 Chief Mugalula I of Kiwele (Tanzania)
Succeeded her father, Nyungu-ya-Mawe, who had originally designated his sister’s son, Nzwala, as his successor, but he predeceased him. She committed suicide and was succeeded by Nzwala’s daughter Msavila. According to some sources she was Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi in 1893 – but Nyamwezi was the name of the ruling dynasty in Kiwele.

From 1848 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene Nana Afrakoma Panin of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)
Succeeded mother, Ama Sewa, and was succeeded by daughter, Nana Akua Saponmaa, as holder of the dual offices of Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene (Queen Mother and King).

After 1848 Reigning Dwabenhemaa and Dwabenhene Nana Akua Saponmaa of Dwaben (Dwabehene or Dwabeii) (Ghana)
Succeeded mother, Nana Afrakoma Panin, at a not known time.

Unnamed Amazone of Dahomey1851 Army Leader Seh-Dong-Hong-Beh in Abomey (Benin)
She was leader of the ”Amazons” under King Gezo, and led an army of 6.000 women against the Egba fortress of Abeokuta. Because the Amazons were armed with spears, bows and swords while the Egba had European cannons only about 1,200 survived the extended battle. In 1892 King Behanzin of Dahomey (now Benin) was at war with the French colonists over trading rights. He led his army of 12,000 troops, including 2.000 Amazons into battle. Despite the fact that the Dahomey army was armed only with rifles while the French had machine guns and cannons, the Amazons attacked when the French troops attempted a river crossing, inflicting heavy casualties. They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French.

Bronze Mask of a Queen Mother of Benin

1851-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)

Mother of Adolo of Benin (1848-88). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital. She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always "consulted" by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a "wife" with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders.

Until 1853 Sultan Mwana Mwema of Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Followed on the throne by Sultan Yusuf.

1854-55 Regent Queen Mother Muganzirwazza of Buganda (Uganda)
She was regent for son, Mukaabya Mutesa I (1837-56-84), and a powerful political force after he came of age. She lived (1817-82).

1855-94 Rain Queen Modjadji II of Balobedu (South Africa)
She succeeded her mother Modjadji I. Like her mother she never married the father of her children, though she had a number of wifes, who were given to her as tribute, and who were then handed out to chiefs of the tribe. The Queen was practically inaccessible to her people, appearing only very seldom in public, and had the mystical power to transform clouds into rain. She committed ritual suicide in 1894 after having designated the daughter of her "sister" and great wife, Leakkali as her heir.

Ca. 1855-ca. 1910 Queen Natélégé of the Mzalara (Central African Republic)
The first woman of her people to be acclaimed Chief in her own right.

Before 1855-after 1868 Duchess Uerkit of the Oromo Tribe (Ethiopia)
Her tribe lives in the Province of Uello.

1858-89 Kpojito Zoïndi of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of her son, King Gélé, who had won a succession-struggle prince Wensu who had been supported by one of the highest-ranking women in court, the Tononu Yavedo. As mother of the heir she had lived in seclusion and was therefore out of touch with the situation at court, and therefore her political influence was small, and actually her brother became Gélé's closest advisor.

Asantehemaa in 18801859-84 Asantehemaa Nana Afia Kobi Serwaa Ampen I of Asante (Ghana)
As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reigns of the kings Kwaku Dua I Panyin (1834-67), Kofi Kakari (1867-84), Mensa Bonsu Kumaa (1874-83) and Kwaku Dua II Kumaa (1884), she was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. The de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She mother of the kings Nana Kofi Kaakari and Nana Mensa Bonsu, and was succeeded on the post by daughter Yaa Akyeaa. She lived (1765-1819).

An Ongandjera lady1862 17th Queen Nakashwa of Ongandjera (Ouambo)(Namibia)
She was head of one of the country's northern tribes.

Rasoherina 1863-68 HM Rasoherina, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar
Born as Rabodozanakandriana, and also known as Rasoaherina or Rabuda, she was married to King Radama II (1861-63) and when he died in 1863 she became Queen of Madagascar. She married again to minister Rainitaiarivoy, who took control of politics and was named her Prime Minister. In 1865 Rasoaherina signed a Commercial Treaty with the British that ensured the influence of English. She lived (1829-68).

1868-83 Queen Ranavalona II, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar, andProtectrice of the laws of the Nation
Born as Ramoma, she was also known as Ranavalo Manjaka II after she followed Queen Rasoaherina on the throne. She married to Rainitaiarivoy who she named her Prime Minister. After being crowned she allowed Christianity in her States, and got baptized in 1869. She abolished slavery. Under her rule the British were really influential. In 1883 French commodore Pierre was sent to Madagascar because of a commercial matter and took Majunga post and bombarded Tamatave.

1868-75 Reigning Queen Mother The Ndlovukati Thandile Ndwandwe I Nxumalo of Swaziland
After 1875 Joint Head of State
She was widow of King Mswati (1840-68) and until 1875 she reigned in the name of Ludvonga II, who afterwards became king, and she took over as joint head of state.

Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo 1868-76 Regent Dowager Queen Warqito Mastawat of Walo (Ethiopia)
She was mother of the young Imam Amede Beshir, one of the two claimants to the leadership of the Weresek (Mammadoch) clan of Wollo. Emperor Tewodros had seized Amede Beshir, had him baptized as his godson, and had fought the mother of the other claimant, the rival Queen Mestawat. Although bitter rivals, both Mestawat and Werqitu were foes of the Emperor. Werqitu was not initially eager to help the Shewan prince even though his father had been a close ally. She initially decided to send emissaries to the Emperor to inform him that the Shewans were in her camp, and that she would exchange them for her son. Tewodros however was extremely furious when he found out about the escape of the Shewans. Her son died during the siege, and her grief and anger knew no bounds. Until the very end, she never stopped attacking Tewodros' army, and never held back aid from anyone who rebelled against him.

South African Queen1870s Regent Princess Mnkabayi of the Zulu Kingdom (South Africa)
As regent for her brother, Mnkabayi assumed the role of the "spiritual" leader of the Zulu army, impi. She addressed the impi as part of the kingdom's ritual before it engaged itself with the enemy. Political power represented ancestral spirits of the kingdom. Mythology held that King Dingane's ancestors such as Malandela and Senzangakhona, were the highest ranking. Both Dingane and Mnkabayi were the earthly representatives of the ancestors, and the king could not exercise his patriarchal power without invoking Regent Mnkabayi's spiritual powers.

1870s-1889 Tononu Visesgan of Abomey (Benin)
In 1863 she was an assistant to Yavedo and by the 1870s she had emerged as the most influential woman in the palace. She "commanded" all the women of the court, and was the richest woman at court because of her successful trade endeavors. She was engaged in various succession-struggles, and emerged as a powerful spokesperson for accommodation with the French, in opposition with the heir, Behanzin, who seized her property in revenge after becoming king. Local court records from the early 1900s attests to her attempts to maintain control over women who had been granted to her by Gélé.

Queen Nenzima

1875-1926 Chief Advisor Queen Nenzima of Mangbetu (Ghana)

She was chief advisor of four kings, among others her husband, Chief Okondo of Mangbetu, who ruled until 1915. Nenzima lived (ca. 1840-1926).

Madam Yoko of Kpaa Mende1878-1908 Queen Madam Yoko of Kpaa Mende and Seneghum, (Sierra Leone)
Known as Mammy Yoko, she was a brilliant and ambitious woman who used her friendship with the British to gain control of Kpaa Mende. As a child, she was called Soma but acquired the name Yoko at her Sande initiation where she attracted admiration for her beauty and graceful dancing. After an unsuccessful first marriage, Yoko became the wife of Gbenjei, Chief of Taiama; and although she was barren, Gbenjei made Yoko his head wife. When Gbenjei died, Yoko married Gbanya Lango, a powerful war-chief at Senehun. In 1875, she saved her husband from a long imprisonment under the British by making a personal appeal to the Governor, who was charmed by her beauty and feminine graces. Afterwards, Gbanya used Yoko in diplomatic missions to the British and to other chiefs. After the deaths of Gbanya she became the "Queen of Senehun". Within a few years, she had brought all of the Kpaa Mende region (now fourteen chiefdoms) under her nominal control through alliances, warfare, and her ability to call on the support of friendly British troops. She established a famous Sande bush in Senehun where she trained girls from throughout Kpaa Mende, sometimes giving the most beautiful in marriage to sergeants of the Frontier Police or to important chiefs. When the British declared their Protectorate in 1898, Madam Yoko commanded her people to pay the new tax — but her sub-chiefs rebelled. They held a secret meeting, blaming Yoko for "spoiling the country" by supporting the British police, taxes, and forced labour. Yoko took refuge in the police barracks which withstood several attacks by her own subjects, and she was later awarded a silver medal for her loyalty by Queen Victoria. Madam Yoko ruled as a Paramount Chief in the new British Protectorate until 1906, when it appears that she committed suicide at the age of fifty-five. If true, her reasons have never been altogether clear. A British official wrote that she had obtained all there was to be had in life — love, fame, wealth, and power — and felt there was nothing more to look forward to. But her attempts to manipulate the British for her own ends had turned around on her. She had lost the support of her people, and perhaps she was bored and saw nothing challenging in Britain's new and tightly controlled protectorate. She lived (ca. 1849-1908).

1878... Regent Warquito Mastawat of Gera Walo (Ethiopia)
Regent for chief Muhammad Ala, who became Ras Mika'el in 1878. The boarder state was incorporated into Ethiopia in 1896.

Ethiopian female rulerUntil ca. 1879 Queen Moh' of Guma (Ethiopia)
One of the boarder states, that were independent or under Ethiopian suzerainty before being incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire. Guma was part of the group of Giba States.

1879 Regent Princess Ivaki of Igunda (Tanzania)
For son Chief Ikviaki, who succeeded her father.

1880-86 Queen Hompa Mpande of Uukwangali (Namibia)
In the Kavango, Uukwangali Queen Mpande succeeded King Mpasi who died in 1880. She was the ninth in the recorded genealogy of the Uukwangali kings and Queens. Hompa Mpande ruled the Uukwangali area until her death in 1886. Mpande was followed by King Himarua who ruled until 1910.

1881-8.. Sultan Mouna Chamou bint Mugné Mku of Mitsamhuli (Comoro Islands)
It might have been her second reign. She was succeeded by the male sultan, Bwana Fumu, who reigned until 1888.

1882 Politically Influential Duchess Woizero Bafena of Ethiopia
Married to Prince Menelik, and was widely regarded as a plotting ambitious arriviste, Bafena earned the resentment of almost all of Menelik's relatives and followers. At some point she used Menelik's seal to issue false decrees, seized the treasure of the House of Shewa with many arms and transferred them to the fortress at Tamo. She also transferred a royal prisoner, Dejazmatch Meshesha Seyfu, Menelik's cousin and rival claimant to Tamo as well. Her intention was to put her own son from a previous marriage on the throne, removing any threat from Meshesha Seyfu as well. However, Meshesha Seyfu was able to win the loyalty of the soldiers in Tamo, who turned on Bafena and ended her plot. It was suspected that Emperor Yohannis had a hand in encouraging these plots. Meshesha Seyfu and Menelik were reconciled and Bafena admitted her guilt, blaming her actions on jealousy aroused by Menelik's attentions to the lovely young Wolete Selassie who had become his mistress. Bafena, already widely hated at court was banished in disgrace. However, a temporary reconciliation between Menelik and his wife was arranged by her friends. This attempt at reconciliation failed, largely because Menelik recognized that he needed an heir, and that Bafena was too old to produce more offspring. They were formaly separated.

1883-97 H.M. Queen Ranavalona III, by the grace of God and the will of the people, Queen of Madagascar, and Protectrice of the laws of the Nation
1897-1917/22 Head of the Sovereign Family
Her personal name was Razafindraheti and she reigned as Ranavalo Manyaka III or Ranavalona. First married to prince Ratrima. After her succession to the throne, she married Premier Rainitairarivoy, who had also been married to the Queens Rasoaherina and Ranavalona II and was the real ruler of the country. She had the misfortune to be caught up in the endgame of the maneuvering that had been going on between the British and French since the beginning of the century. In 1885, she signed a treaty with France giving them various rights and concessions, which was deemed sufficient excuse to declare a protectorate over the entire island, which was recognized by Britain in the Anglo-French agreement of 1890. In 1894, the Queen and her government refused to follow French orders, and in 1895 the French sent an expeditionary force, which occupied Antananarivo with very little resistance. Rainilaiarivony was sent into exile immediately and died the following year, but the Queen and much of her administration remained, even after the official declaration of Madagascar as a French colony in August 1896. An insurrection followed soon after, the Queen's court was accused of encouraging it, and General Gallieni abolished the monarchy in February 1897. Ranavalona was deposed and sent to the island of Réunion.. She adopted two of her sisters'daughters Princess Ranalavola and Rasoherina, and lived (1861-1917).

Asantehemaa Yaa Akyaa of Asante1884-1917 10th Asantehemaa Nana Yaa Akyeaa of Asante (Ghana)
Mother the kings Kwaku Dua (1860-84) the 12th Asantahene in 1884, of Premph I (1888 and grandmother of Premph II.She had through strategic political marriages built the military power to secure the Golden Stool for her son. The British authorities offered to take the Asante under their protection, but Prempeh refused each request. In 1896 the British authorities entered Kumase and arrested Prempeh and Yaa Akayaa as well as Prempeh's father, and they were all send in exile. Succeeded as 11th Asantehemaa by daughter, Konadu Yaadom II, who was in office until 1944. Yaa Akyaa lived (ca. 1837-1917).

Nana Yaa Asantewaa1887-1900 Edwesohemaa Nana Yaa Asantewaa of Edweso (Ghana)
1896-1900 Regent of Edweso
1900 Leader of the Resistance
Appointed Queen Mother by her brother, Nana Akwasi Afrane Okpesé, the Edwesohene, as successor to Nana Ampobin I. When her brother died in about 1894, Yaa Asantewaa used her prerogative as Queen-Mother to nominate her own grandson, to succeed to the vacant office. When he was sent into exile in 1896 she became regent. After the British deported the king of the Asante, she became leader of the resistance supported by some male leaders. Eyewitness accounts from Edweso indicate that she herself did not physically take up arms to fight. Her role has been described as being mainly inspirational. She was known to have visited the soldiers in the battlefield to ascertain how they were faring. She also gave directions and advice as well as supplied gunpowder. In the end the Queen Yaa Asantewaa was captured and sent to Seychelles islands off Africa's east coast, while most of the captured chiefs became prisoners-of-war. She lived (1850-1921).

Njapdungke of Bamum1888-94 Regent Queen Mother Regnant Njapdungke of Bamum (Cameroon)
Also known as Setfon or Nazabidunke, she was initially regent for her son, Ibrahum Njoya, who was Fon of Bamun 1888-1923, in 1918 he also became sultan of Fumban, he was deposed in 1923, and lived (1885-1933). After he took over the reigns himself she became his closest advisor. Bamun was under indirect colonial rule by the Germans. She (d. 1913).

Bronze Head of a Benin Queen Mother1888-97-1914 Iyoba Iha II of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Also known as Iheya, she was the Mother of Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi of Benin (1888-97-1914). There is evidence that she remained in Benin after her son was deposed by the British.

1888-1902 Representative of the British and Judge Mary Slessor, Okoyongo District (Nigeria)
She was an ordinary Dundee mill worker who became a notable missionary in West Africa. With enormous strength of will she unflinchingly took on the authorities to bring genuine benefits to the natives, setting up many schools, hospitals and churches throughout the region. Called 'Great Mother' by the Nigerians, she provided healthcare and education and stamped out barbaric tribal practices such as human sacrifice, ritualistic rape and the murder of twins. She lived (1848-1915)

1889-94 Reigning Queen Mother The Ndlovukati Tibati Nkambule
of Swaziland
1894-99 Joint Head of State
Became ruler after the death of her husband, King Mbandzeni (1875-89). In 1894 her son, Ngwane II, became king.

Unnamed Queen of Abomey1889-94 Kpojito Kamlin of Abomey (Benin)

Reign mate of King Behanzin Behanzin (1841-1906), who chose the strategy of confrontation to resist French occupation of his kingdom. In 1889, King Glele and his son Behanzin, who considered the coastal areas of Porto Novo and others to be part of the kingdom of Dahomey, declared that the Fon people could no longer tolerate France's actions. In February 1890, the French occupied Cotonou and Behanzin prepared for war which resulted in a treaty, with the French continuing to occupy Cotonou, for which Behanzin exacted an annuity. The peace lasted for two years. However, France was determined to annex Dahomey before the British or Germans did. Behanzin, knowing that he would have to defend his sovereignty, updated his army in the interim. In 1894, Behanzin surrendered himself to Dodds, but a national surrender was never effected. Behanzin was exiled to the island of Martinique in the West Indies and later transferred to Algeria where he died in 1906.

Before 1891-1908 Ohamba Nekoto of Parts of Oukwanyama (Nambia)
She was mentioned in the writings of the German Lutheran missionaries that worked in Oukwanyama from 1891 to 1915. As a member of the royal family, she ruled over a large section of Oukwanyama where she took all relevant political decisions and sentenced in court. She was an aunt to kings Weyulu and Nande of Kwanyama and a great-aunt to the last Kwanyama king, Mandume, and exerted great influence over her nieces and nephews. Although she allocated the German missionaries a place to build their fourth Kwanyama mission station, Omatemba, in 1906, she was not at all interested in Christianity. According to the custom of the time, after the death of a female Ohamba her husband was to be killed to provide her company in the other world, but he was saved by the missionaries. Like any other female Ohamba, Nekoto enjoyed the prerogative to choose a spouse to her liking. When Nekoto married Haishi after the death of her first husband, Mombola, he had to leave his former wives, said to number five or six (as he was a wealthy man) in order to join her as her Oshitenya, or 'prince consort'. The role of the royal husband was to carry out and oversee all orders around the queen's area. However, he had no say in decision-making, although Haishi is said to have tried to act independently, too. It is not known when Nekoto was born but already in 1896 she was described as 'an old woman' (d. 1908).

Until 1892 Queen Sandemani Famata Bendu Sandmani of Gawula andRuler of Vai (Liberia)
Succeeded her husband as Queen of the Tribe in the Cape Mount Area. Her second husband was King Al Hai of Gallinas. Mother of one son.

1893-94 Regent Queen Mother Ida of Ketu (Benin)
Kétou is one of the oldest Yoruba kingdoms in the country, and can be traced back to the fourteenth century. It is known for its colorful and beautiful wood carving. In 1894 Queen appointed Oyengen king. He ruled until 1918.

1893-94 Sultan Mugalula of Nyamwezi at Zanzibar (Tanzania)
She abdicated as Sultan of Nyamwezi the same year. Abdicated as sultan and was succeeded by daughter Abd Msavila II in Nyamwezi, who also abdicated.

1893-1924 Chiefess Msavila I of Kiwele (Tanzania)
Succeeded her aunt, Mugalula I in Kiwele and wad first succeeded by son and in 1929 by daughter Mulgalula II.

1893 Politically Influential Saudatu of Sokoto (Nigeria)

She intervened in the power struggle and secured the succession of her son, Emir Aliyu, and remained politically influential during his reign.

Royal Lady of Abomey1894-1900 Kpojito Kanai of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Agoliagbo, the last reigning king of Abomey. At this time the office of Kpojito had become merely symbolic due to the European influence.

1895 Sultan Abd Msavila II of Nyamwezi (Tanzania)
Daughter of Sultana Mugalula, who reigned 1893-95 Msavila abdicated and was succeeded by Chief and sultan Katugamoto, who was deposed in 1898.

Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda

1895-96 Reigning Umugabekazi Nyirauhi V Kanjogera of Rwanda
1896-ca. 1916 Regent
1916-31 Reigning Umugabekazi

She became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) by the death of her husband King Kigeri IV Rwabigi and twice acted as regent for her son Yuhi V wa Musinga (1896-31). Rwanda was a Belgian colony at the time.

Khetoane Modjadji III1895-1959 Rain Queen Khetoane Modjadji III of Balobedu (South Africa)
In 1894 her predecessor, Modjadji II, committed ritual suicide. She and her council had already designated the daughter of her "sister" and great wife, Khetoane, as heir. The Rain-Queens were, and still is seen as the embodiment of the divine order of the Lobedu Tribe, and one of their duties, and abilities, is to provide their tribe with rain.

1896-97 Rebellion Leader Ambuya Vehanda Shonas in Zimbabwe
Leader of an uprising against the British. She was executed.

The Queen Mother of Buganda1897-1914 Joint Regent Queen Mother of Buganda (Uganda)
She was one of many wifes of king H.H. Danieri Basamula-Ekkeri Mwanga II Mukasa who was finally deposed in 1897, and though she seems to have been member of the regency-council for her one year old son, H.H. Kabaka Sir Daudi Chwa II (1896-97-1939), her name does not appear to be known.

1898-1900 Queen Madam Matolo of Nongowa and Panguma (Sierra Leone)
She was appointed Paramount Chiefess by the Portuguese Colonial Powers.
Married to King Faba Kpovowo of Pangum (d. 1889), who was
succeeded by son Nyagua, who died in 1898. She was succeeded by

Until 1898 Military Leader and Priestess Nehana of the MaShona Nation (Zimbabwe)
She became a military leader of her people when the British invaded her country. She led a number of successful attacks on the English but was eventually captured and executed. She lived (1862-1898).

Labotsibeni Gwamile Ndluli1899-1921 Regent Indlovukazi Labotsibeni Gwamile Ndluli laMvelase of Swaziland
1921-25 Joint-Head of State
She was regent until the installation of her grand-son as king Shobuza II (1921-82). After the South African War the British established their colonial rule in Swaziland in August 1902, and she devoted her energy challenging the British colonial state on various issues ranging from land to legal jurisdiction over the emaSwati. She remained Deputy Head of State until her death. (Died 1925).

After 1903 Chief Muyelaansime of Nkokolo (Tanzania)
Succeeded brother, Mutitimia, who died 1903, and some time later succeeded by his daughter, Chiefess Ng’endo.

1906-10 De-facto Regent Itegé Taytu Betul, Ethiopia
She was crowned Queen of Shewa in 1883 and became Itegé (Empress-Consort) of her husband, emperor Menilek II. She acted as regent during his illness. She was very powerful, but still obtained her husband's authorization for her decisions. She was removed by a coup d'Etat in 1910, but remained influential. Born as Walata Mikáel, she lived (1853-1918).

Queen Ririkumutima1908-17 Regent Mugabekazi Nidi Ririkumutima of Burundi (Belgian Colony, Later Independent)
As Queen Mother she was first President of the of Council ofRegency for her stepson, Mutaga IV Mbikije (1903-08-15), and then member of the regency for his son Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng (1912-15-66-77). Her full name was, Nidi Ririkumutima Bizama hitanzimiza Mwezi, and she was probably murdered in 1917. Since 1972 the Head of the Sovereign Family has been Crown Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza of Burundi.

Madam Hamonya and maids1908-18 Paramount Chiefess Madam Humonya of Nongowa and Panguma (Sierra Leone)
Elected as the successor of her mother, Madam Matolo, but her rule was despotic ad therefore she was not re-elected as Paramount Chiefess in 1918. Perhaps chief of Kenema as well.10 of Sierra Leone's 146 paramount chiefs were women in the period 1914-70.

1910s-1940s Politically Influential Queen Mother Seingwaeng of BaKgatla (Botswana)

Surfases repeatedly in both oral and archival sources as a key participant at the centre of major events in the chiefdom. She stood by her son, Chief Molefi of the Kgafela in spite of his troubles with the colonial administrators and frivolous behaviour (drunkedness and womanising). None the less he treated her badly and hated her newfound religion – the Zion Christian Church (ZCC) – for its strict lifestyle code and condemnation of ‘sinful’ living, and he had her and the other members publicly flogged at the kgotla and then driven off from the chiefdom. She lived (1883-1967).

1911-31-? Politically Influential Queen Gagomakwe of the BaKwena (Botswana)

During times of intrigue and political instability she was the hand of stability during the reign of her husband Kgosi Sechele II (1875-1911-18). She was also the pillar of stability during the reign of her son, Kgosi Kgari I (1931-62) who came to the throne after his brother, Kgosi Sebele II (1918-31), was ousted by the colonial administration and exiled to Ghazi in 1931.

1911-14 Rebellion Leader Me Katilili of the Giriama Tribe in Kenya
Leader of a rebellion against the British, and lived (1841-1920s).

1916-30 Negiste Nagast Zawditu, Elect of God, Lion of the Tribe of Judah and Queen of Kings of Ethiopia
Also known as Zauditu. Her father, Menelik II, died in 1913 and was succeed by Lij Iyasu, the son of her half-sister Shewa Regga, and she was exiled to the countryside. When he wasremoved from power the Council of State and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church officially appointed her as his successor. After some years, her husband, Ras Gugsa Welle, was appointed governor of a remote province to limit the influence of her stepmother - and his aunt - Dowager Empress Taytu. And Lij Iyasu, who had escaped captivity attempted to regain the throne by force, but was not succesful. She wasconservative, believing in the preservation of Ethiopian tradition, and had the strong backing of the church in this belief. Slowly, however, she began to withdraw from active politics, leaving more and more power to Ras Tafari Makonnen, who was a modernizer. Under his direction, Ethiopia entered the League of Nations, and abolished slavery. She busied herself with religious activities, such as the construction of a number of significant churches. After a uprising against hisreforms in 1928, she granted him the title of Regent and the additional title of Negus. In 1930, her husband led a rebellionagainst Negist Tafari, but was killed in battle. Shortly after she died and was succeeded by Tafari, who took the name Haile Selassie I. She was originally named Askala Mariam, and had by her second husband she had a daughter who lived (1891-95) and by her third another who died at birth in 1906. Married 4 times, she died of diabetes after having lived (1876-1930).

1917-44 11th Asantehemaa Kwaadu Yaadom II of Asante (Ghana)
She was elected Queen Mother after the death of her mother, Yaa Akyaa. In the period 1900-35 there was no Asantehene or king of the Asante. From 1926-35 the kingdom was ruled by chiefs with the title of Kumasehene. The last of those, Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, began his reign in 1931, became Asantehene in 1935, and ruled until 1970. Konadu Yaadom II was followed on the post by her cousin, Nana Ama Sewas Nyaako, who was in office until 1977.

1917-? Head of the Royal House Princess Ranavalona IV of Madagascar
May possibly have been Head of the Royal House after the death of Queen Ranavalona III. She was daughter of the Queen's older sister, Princess Rasendranoro (1853-1901) who accompanied her into exile together with her daughter Princess Razafinandriamanitra, "Enfant du Bon Dieu", also known as Crown Princess Marie Louise, who lived (1897-1948). Some sources describe her as daughter of Henri Razafinkarefo, who was probably Rasendranoro's son and married to Jennie Marie Waller, daughter of the American consul.

1923-24 Acting Paramount Chief Kgosigadi Mohamagodi Gaogangwe a Sechele of the baNgwaketse (British Protectorate, Botswana)

After Kgosi Seepapitso I (1884-1916) was assassinated by his brother Moepitso. Known as the one-eyed queen, she was the double matriarch of BaNgwaketse and BaKgatla ba ga Mmanaana royal houses. The daughter of the BaKwena chief, Sechele I by his wife Mokgokong, she was first married Pilane, the BaKgatla chief until she eloped with Bathoen I and later married him. She took over power in 1924 to save the BaNgwaketse bogosi from disintegration and chaos caused by incompetence and early deaths of two of the regents of her grandson, Bathoen II (1908-16-69). She publicly denounced the the last regent of incompetence and financial mismanagement of the tribal treasury at a kgotla meeting, and she assumed power, as Bathoen II’s regent. Before she died of cancer she nominated her daughter, Ntebogang as regent and successor, and lived (1848-1924).

1924-28 Acting Paramount Chief Queen-Sister Ntebogang a Bathoen of the baNgwaketse (British Protectorate, Botswana)

Ruled at various times during the minority of her nephew, Bathoen II. She has been described as one of the few female members of an elite group of progressive-minded Batswana royals. It is said that she feared no one and was determined to keep BaNgwaketse bogosi intact until its rightful heir was appointed. She brought stability to the tribe after years of political intrigue and incompetence of the other regents made worse by the death of her mother, Kgosigadi Gaogangwe. She installed discipline, respect for tradition and during her reign many projects such as the building of schools, dams and medical establishments were carried out successfully. As a convert to the Seventh-day Adventist Church and to the benefit of the people, she allowed the church to establish a hospital and a number of clinics in the chiefdom. Outside her chiefdom she was influential in other ways too. Later the first woman to sit in the Native Advisory Council and was according to records, one of its outspoken members. She lived (1882-1975).

1925-38 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Lomawa Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland
Ndlovukati means Queen Mother, The Great She-elephant. She was the mother of King Sobhuza II, and lived (1878-1938).

The picture shows a Namibian Queen in the 1920s - but the sources does not agree fully on her identity1926-41 and 1958-71 Queen Kanuni I of Uukwangali (Namibia)
Uukwangali is the name of a kingdom and of one of the tribes of Namibia. She was forced by the native commissioner in the Kavango, Eedes, into exile in Angola, and she was succeeded by king Sivute, who ruled until 1958 when she returned and ruled until 1971. (d 1978).

1927-30 Regent Princess Motshabi of bamaNgwato (Botswana)

Ruled after the death her brother, Sekgoma II.

1928-43-? Chief Mali II of Khaha (South Africa)
Initially she was installed as chief after her father's death, but as she refused to give up her husband (as Mali I did), she resigned and instead acted as regent for minor brother.

1929-62 Chief Mugalula II of Kiwele (Tanzania)
Daughter of Msavila and succeeded brother. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

1930-62 Politically Influential Menem Asfaw of Ethiopia
Married the regent Ras Tafari in 1911. Early in his reign an army revolt broke out and he was taken hostage. She commandeered a tank and drove it herself trough the garrison's gate to free her husband. In exile during the Italian occupation. After the restoration in 1941 she was Emperor Hailie Selassie IIIs closest advisor on all aspects. She lived (1869-1962).

1931 Umugabekazi Nyiaranauugo III Kankazi of Burundi

She became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) (12.11-16.11) after the death of her husband. Burundi was a Belgian colony at the time.

Until 1934 Chief Musonga II of Ipito (Tanzania)
She succeeded father Ivata, she was deposed and succeeded by sister.

1934-62 Chief Ng’endo of Ipito (Tanzania)
Daughter of Ivata and succeeded sister Musonga II. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

1934-62 Chief Sala of Nkokolo (Tanzania)
Succeeded cousin, the male chief Kasivilo. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

Possibly a photo of Aline SitoeCa. 1936-43 Queen Aline Sitoé Diatta of the Diola Tribe in Casamance (Senegal)
She was deposed by the French because of her opposition to their rule. In 1943 the French attacked her capital, she surrendered, was arrested and sent into exile in Timbuktu, where she died the following year. She lived (ca. 1920-44) .

1938-57 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Nukwase Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland
She was married to one of king Sobhuza II's 12 uncles, Prince Malunge Dlamini (1877-1915) and took over the position of Queen Mother, since his mother and "step-mothers" had died. She lived (1880-1957).

1941-60 Acting Paramount Chief The Mofumahali'MaNtsebo Amalia 'Matsaba Sempe of Lesotho
Leshoto at the time was a British protectorate with the name Basutoland. Her son, Moshoeshoe II, was King 1960-70, 1970-88 and 1990-96. She lived (1902-65).

1941-46 Acting Paramount Chiefess Elizabeth Tshatshu of the Xhosa Tribe of amaNtinde (South Africa)
She was acting after the death of Mgcawezulu a Nongane until she was succeeded by Zwelitsha a Mgcawezulu, who is still Inkosi Enkhulu.

1941 Queen Mother Mutaleni kaMpingana of Ondonga (Nambia)
After the death of King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa she played an important role in the selection of the 13th King of the Ondonga area, Kambonde kaNamene (1942-1960).

1943-57 Acting Chiefess Nofikile a Ngongo of the Xhosa Tribe of imiDushane kaNdlambe (South Africa)
Acting after the death of Inkosi Enkhulu Gushiphela a Menziwa and succeeded by Zimlindile Payment Muyaka a Gushiphela, who is still chief of the tribe.

The Asantehemaa1944-77 12th Asantehemaa Nana Ama Sewaa Nyaako of Asante (Ghana)
She was the second Queen mother during the reign of king Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempe II (1892-1931/35-70) and during of Otumfuo Nana Opoku Ware II (1919-70-99). She was granddaughter of Aufa Kobi Serwaa Ampen I, who was (1859-1884) and daughter of daughter of Akua Afriyie, the Kumasehemaa. In 1977 she was succeeded by the present Asantehemaa, Nana Afua Kobi Sewaa Ampem II - who is Queen Mother for the present king, Otumfuo Nana Osei Tutu II (1950-99-).

1946-58 Acting Paramount Chiefess, Queen Mother Elizabeth Pulane Seeco of baTawana (British Protectorate, Botswana)

Also known as Princess Pulane Moremi, she widow of Moremi III (1915-37-46) she was regent for son (Letsholathebe II (1940-58-81), and lived (1912-81).

1947-87 Queen Maria Mwengere of Shambyu (Namibia)
Succeeded king Mbambangandu II, who became blind. She prohibited the brewing of traditional beers with sugar, but also curtailed the sale of all kinds of liquor in the Sambyu area. The brewing of traditional beers without the use of sugar for own consumption, was however still permitted. On many occasions during the sixties, she severely punished transgressors by fining them up to four head of cattle, but she later stopped this praxis because of strong opposition from her people. In 1989 Hompa Angelina Ribebe Matumbobecame Queen of the Shambyu.

From 1953 Acting Paramount Chiefess Nonayithi Jali a Mthati of the Xhosa Tribe of imiQhayi (South Africa)
Acting after the death of the acting Chief Bofolo a Ntonisi a Donddashe. It is not known when she was succeeded by Inkosi Enkhulu Mabundu Bangelizwe Jali a Enoch, who is still chief.

Madam Ella Koblo Gulama of Kaiyamba

1953-67 and 1992-2006 Paramount Chiefess Madam Ella Koblo Gulama of Kaiyamban (Sierra Leone)

Elected to succeed her father, Julius Gulama, as head of the tribe and district. 1957 she was elected the first female MP and was Minister without Portfolio 1963-67. Imprisoned during the political unrest from 1967-70 and deposed as Paramount Chief, Vice-President of the conference on Finance and Administration of the United Methodist Church 1985-91, she also worked hard to promote the education of girls and to improve the lot of women as President of the Federation of Women’s Organisations in Sierra Leone 1960-67 and President of the National Organization for Women 1985-91. Re-elected Paramount Chief of Kaiyamba Chiefdom by a unanimous vote in 1992. The rebel war and its effects were devastating to Moyamba District and the country as a whole, resulting in complete set­back to development and progress. She was forced to leave Moyamba and seek refuge in Freetown. On her return to Moyamba, she again put all her efforts into the rehabilitation of her Chiefdom and District. Director of the Sierra Leone Export Development and Investment Corporation (SLEDIC) 1994-96 and also a director of The Sierra Leone Commercial Bank Limited. 1997 she fell ill and appointed a regent. She was married to Paramount Chief Bai Koblo Pathbana II Marampa Masimera Chiefdom andmother of 7 children, she lived (1921-2006).

1958 Acting Chief Executive Angie Elizabeth Brook-Randolph, Liberia
1953-58 Assistant Attorney General and 1956-73 Assistant Secretary of State. In 1958 she acted as Chief Executive as both the President and the Secretary of State were abroad for some days. 1967-68 President of the United Nations-Trusteeship Council (Administering Nauru, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands Territories), 1969 and 1976 she was President of the General Assembly of the UN, 1973-75 Ambassador-at-Large, 1975-77 Ambassador to the United Nations and Cuba, and in 1977 appointed Judge in the Supreme Court. (b. 1928-).

1958- Queen Kanuni II of Uukwangali (Namibia)
She succeeded king Sivute, who succeeded Queen Kanuni I in 1941.

1958-66 (†) Politically Influential Aisha Diori in Niger
Controlled her husband, president Hamani Diori, (1916-89), like a marionette. She was killed during an attempted coup d'etat in but executed Aisha. Her husband was the Prime Minister (1958-60) and the first President after Niger's independence in 1960 until he was deposed in 1974.

1959-80 Rain Queen Makoma Modjadji IV of Balobedu (South Africa)
The Queen, apart from her ruling duties, have the duty of providing her nation with rain. Succeeded by daughterMokope Modjadji V in 1981.

1959-19... Dwabenhene Nana Juaben Serwah II of Dwaben (Ghana)

The present Dwabenhene, Nana Otuo Serebour, came in office in 1992.

Her Imperial Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie1961-74 Politically Influential H.I.H. Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
After the death of her mother Empress Menen she became the most visible and foremost woman at the Imperial court. She played an ever increasing advisory role. The Princess was one of the few people who was able to freely offer critisism of official policy to the Emperor, and was often a conduit of various points of view to the Emperor when those offering opinions were too intimidated by the Emperor to offer them themselves. A strong personality with conservative views, she was widely regarded as being a guardian of the institution of the monarchy, and was concerned that it be upheld in an era of rapid and often unpredictable change. She was perceived as a leader of the traditionalist element within the nobility that was very wary of demands for constitutional reform and land reform policies. After the revolution, the women of the Imperial House were imprisoned 1974-89, and one year later she left the country. She returned to Ethiopia in 1999. She was First married to Ras Desta Damtew, Governor of the Province of Sidamo. Secondly to Ato Abebe Retta, who later served in ambassadorial and other roles in the post-war Imperial government, and would eventually become President of the Imperial Senate after their separation and thirdly to Ras Andargatchew Messai, who had been representative for the underage Prince Makonnen in his Duchy of Harrar. He was appointed Governor-General of Beghemidir and Simien Province and in 1951 vice-roy of Ethiopia. Mother of seven children with her two first husbands, and lived (1912-2003).

1961-99 Paramount Chief Madam Honoraia Bailor Caulker of (Sierra Leone)

Member of the National Advisory Council and later of the National Reformation Council from 1961. President of the Women's Action for New Directions. She lived (1922-99).

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Boi Sei Kenja III of Imperi (Sierra Leone)

She was head of 93 Chiefs. At the time the Paramount Chiefs were heads of the local administration of Sierra Leone. There were a total of 148 paramount chiefs.

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Kadiyatta Gata of Jong (Sierra Leone)

Head of 172 Chiefs.

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Tity Messi of Kwameba Krim (Sierra Leone)

She was head of 66 chiefs.

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Tiange Gbatekaka of Gaura (Sierra Leone)

Head of 195 chiefs.

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Benya of Small Bo (Sierra Leone)

She was head of 235 chiefs.

Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Mammawa Sama of Tunika (Sierra Leone)

Head of 171 chiefs.

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela1964-89 Anti-Apartheid Leader Nomzano WinnieMandela in South Africa
During the imprisonment of her husband, Nelson Mandela (1964-89) she was known as "Mother of the Nation" and among the leaders of the Anti-Apartheid Movement and ANC. She also was President of the Women’s Wing of ANC, 1994-95 she was Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. In 1997 she withdrew her candidature for the post of vice-President of ANC (and of the Republic) after revelations of her involvement in killings during Apartheid. Since the divorce from Nelson Mandela in 1995 she has been known as Madikizela-Mandela. (b. 1934-).

Lady Ruth Khama

1966-80 Politically Influential Lady Ruth Williams Khama, Botswana

Influential during the tenure of her husband, Sir Seretse Khama as President. He had been Paramount Chief of Bamagwato (1949-56), but was not recognized by the British protectorate authority and lived i exile until he renounced his claims in 1956. He lived (1921-80), and she is (b. 1924-).

1970 and 1990 Regent H.M. Queen ‘MaMohato Thabita 'Masente Lerotholi Mojela of Lesotho
1996 Regent The Mofumahali (Queen Mother)
In 1970 she was the regent for her son who was installed as king in place of her husband, King Moshoeshoe II, who was deposed during military coup d'etats in 1970 and 1990. In 1996 he was killed in a car-crash, where after she took over the regency until her son was re-installed as king David Mahato Berng Seeiso Letsie III. He was also king 1970 and 1988-90. She continued to act as Deputy Head of State and advisor of the King and Queen until her death. She was néePrincess Tabita ‘Masentle Lerotholi Mojela, and lived (1941-2003).

1975-76 Premier Minister Élisabeth Domitién, Central African Republic
As Prime Minister she was also Deputy Head of State and acted as President on occasions when President Bokassa was abroad. Also vice-President of the ruling Social Evolution Movement of Black Africa (MESAN) 1975-79. She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her. After his fall from power in 1979 she was imprisoned and tried in February 1980. She later became an influential businesswoman in Bangui, Married to the chief of the Mobaye Canton-Mayorship. She lived (1925-2005).

1975-81 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Seneleleni Ndwandwe of Swaziland
Married to King Sobhuza II.

1977- Captain Anna Katrina Christian of Bondelswart (!Gami-#nun)in Namaland (Namibia)
An alternative spelling of her name is Anna Katrina Christiaan and her Nama name is !Garisema !Nanse Gôa-Khoes. She followed Jakobus Christian (!Hao-||êib Taosemab) (1953-1977) as the !Gami-#nun (Bondelswart) Captain . She was elected in 1977. Before 1977 the South African Apartheid policy only allowed councillors and no captains (since 1953). She is the seventeenth in the recorded genealogy of the !Gami-#nun captains.

1978-94 Politically Influential Agathe Habyarimana in Rwanda
She was very influential during teure of her husband, Juvenal Habyarimana. A number of her brothers were place in important positions.

1978-80 Regent Princess Teramade Adetule of Erijiyan-Ekiti (Nigeria)
After the death of her brother, Oba Fabunmi-Ogbegun IV (1938-78).

Ca. 1979- Senior Chieftainess Nkomeshya of the Soni People of Lusaka Province (Zambia)
Also known as Hon. Chief Elizabeth Mulenje, she was Minister of State of Home Affairs 1979-86.

1979-92 Kgosi-kgolo Constance Letang Kgosiemang of the Tswana Community in Gobabis (Namibia)
She was follwed as chief by Hubert Tidimalo Ditshabue as chief (Kgoshi) of the Tswana Community in Aminuis.

1979 and 1981-2001 Politically Influential Nana Konadu Agyemang-Rawlings in Ghana
The wife of President Jerry Rawlings, she had no official position in government, but nevertheless played a major role in formulating and even implementing policies relating to women, successfully creating a powerful and autonomous space for herself within the country's politics. She founded 31 December Women's Movement and used that as her platform and power-base. Many expected her to run for president in 2000-01.

1980-90 Politically Influential Sally Hayfron Mugabe inZimbabwe

She was thought to be the chief advisor of her husband and stood by his side throughout years of struggle. She maintained her own identity as a political activist and campaigner. By 1962 she was mobilising African women to challenge Ian Smith's racist Rhodesian constitution and was jailed for it. On becoming Zimbabwe's first lady in 1980 she served as Deputy Secretary and later Secretary of the ZANU Women's League. She did not have any children, and lived (1932-92).

1981-2001 Rain Queen Mokope Modjadji V of Balobedu (South Africa)

She was very traditional in her role as Rain Queen. She lived in seclusion in the Royal Compound in Khetlhakone Village and followed all the customs the Rain Queens were expected to follow. She became good friends with President Nelson Mandela. They first met at a meeting in 1994 and even then she could only speak to Mr. Mandela through the traditional intermediary. She did not support the idea of an ANC Government as she believed that its anti-traditional ideas would dilute her authority. However once the ANC came to power, they treated the her with respect, probably because her village was a large source of income due to tourism, as well as the fact that her gardens acted as parks to preserve the large abundance of cycad trees that grew there. She had three children, and her designated successor was Princess Makheala, who died two days before her, and her grand-daughter Makobo became the next Rain Queen in 2003.Mokope lived (1937-2001) .

Iye Oba Aghahowa N'Errua of Uselu in Nigeria 1981- Iye Oba Aghahowa N'Errua of Uselu in Nigeria(Nigeria)
The Queen Mother of Benin is Ruler of the Village of Uselu and in some aspect considered to be co-ruler with the king. Aghahowa is also Priestess of Olokun. She was the first wife of Oba Akenzua II (1933-78) Breaking with tradition he did not put her aside after the birth of their first son - Oba Erediauwa who has been king of Benin since 1979. She had more sons and daughters and as Eson - chief wife - she managed her husband's growing harem of wifes and children. In her capacity as Priestess of Olokun she is believed to wield considerable power gained in the spirit world. (b. 1907-).

1982-83 Reigning Queen Mother, The Indlovukazi Dzeliwe Shongwe of Swaziland
The senior wife of King Sobhuza II, and joint-head of stateand Queen Mother (The Indovukazi, the Great She-Elephant). The king's death on 21 August 1982 precipitated a prolonged power struggle within the royal family. Initially she, assumed the regency and appointed 15 members to the Liqoqo, a traditional advisory body which Sobhuza had sought to establish as the Supreme Council of State. However a power struggle ensued between the Prime Minister, who sought to assert the authority of the Cabinet and members of the Liqoqo. She was pressurised by the Liqoqo to dismiss the Prime Minister and replace him with a Liqoqo supporter. Subsequently she was placed under house arrest by the Liqoqo in October 1983. The Liqoqo subsequently installed Queen Ntombi Laftwala, mother of the 14 year old heir apparent, Prince Makhosetive, as Queen regent in late October. As Queen Mother she was also co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla. She lost the title of Queen Mother in 1985. (b. ca. 1927-).

1983-86 Queen Regent and Head of State Ntombi
laTfwala of Swaziland

1986- Joint Head of State, Queen Mother, the Indovukazi
Emakhosikati (Queen) Ntombi was one of the youngest wifes
of Sobhuza II, and mother of the future king Mswati II. After the former Queen Mother Regent, Dzeliwe, was removed, she was installed as Queen Regent in late October, and she accepted the Liqoqo as the supreme body in Swaziland. She got the title of Queen Mother Indlovukazi in 1985. As Queen Mother she is Deputy Head of State and co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla, together with the king.(b. ca. 1950-).

1984 Acting Head of State Carmen Pereira, Guinea Bissau

1973-84 Deputy President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1975-80 President of the Parliament of Cap Verde (which was in union with Guinea Bissau at the time) 1981-83 Minister of Health and Social Affairs, 1984-89 President of Assembléia Nacional Popular and acting head of state during a vacancy at the post, 1989-94 Member the Council of State and 1990-91Minister of State (Deputy Premier) for Social Affairs. (b. 1937-).

1987 Premier Princess Stella Margaret Nomzamo Sigcau, Transkei (South Africa)
Minister of Education 1970-73, the Interior (Including Industry, Trade and Tourism) 1973-78, Internal Affairs 1979-81, Post and Telecommunication 1981-87, Leader Transkei National Independence Party in 1987, Minister of Public Enterprises 1994-98 and of Public Works 1998-2006 in the Government of South Africa for ANC. She is daughter of Chief Botha Jongilizwe Sigcau of East-Pontoland (1912-78) who was President of Transkei (1976-78) and is the mother of four children. She lived (1937-2006).

1989- Her Excellency Queen Hompa Angelina Matumbo Ribebe ofShambyu (Namibia)
Succeeeded a male ruler. The previous ruler was Queen Maria Mwengere(1947-87).

1990- Politcally Influential Grace Marufu Mugabe inZimbabwe
She is considered to be the driving force behind her husband Robert Mugabe (b. 1924-), whom she married as a junior wife in 1990 two years after the death of his first wife, Sally. Grace has taken an active part in the land reclamation policy - claiming the farms of non-blacks for government members and other highranking supporters of the President, a policy that has plunged Zimbabwe into crisis and poverty, leaving more than 350.000 farm workers unemployed. The couple has become billionares and she is famous for her shopping-sprees in London, Paris etc. where she uses hundred of thousand of dollars. She is Secretary of the ZANU Women's League, and mother of a number of four children. (b. 1964-).

1993-94 Premier Minister and Acting Head of State Sylvie Kinigi, Burundi
By the time of her appointment as Premier she was Head of the Economic Planning Office in the President’s Office. During the Civil War the President was killed and as the highest ranking reaming official, she became Acting President (27.10.93-5.2.94) After her resignation, she left politics and joined the Burundi’s Commercial Bank and now works for the UN. (b. 1952-).

Agathe Uwilingiymana,1993-94 (†) Premier Minister Agathe Uwilingiymana, Rwanda
Minister of Education from 1992 till her appointment as Prime Minister. On the 6/4 1994 the Hutu President Habyarimana was killed together with his Burundian colleague, Cyprien Ntaryamira, when their plane was rocketed on its way to Kigali airport. Agathe, a Hutu, was killed by the Tutsi Presidential guard together with her family and 10 Belgian soldiers, the day before she was supposed to step down as Premier Minister. The two killings sparked off the civil war and genocide of approximately 1 million Hutus and Tutsies. Mother of about 6 children. She lived (1953-94).

1994-2003 Vice-President Dr. Wandira Speciosa Kagibwe, Uganda
1989-91 Deputy Minister of Industry, 1992-94 Minister of Culture, Women and Youth, 1994-96 Minister of Gender and Community Development and 1996-99 Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries before becoming Deputy Head of State.

Lion King of the Madingos1995- Queen Yvonne Pryor of the Madingo (The Gambia)
A Surinam-Dutch woman, she was elected the Incarnated Lion King of the Madingos, because she was considered to be a reincarnation of a 17th. century-King. She was recognized as the incarnation in 1991 and spend the next years going through varioust tests to prove that she acctually was an incarnation. Mother of 6 children.

Sinqobile Mabhena1995- Chief Sinqobile Mabhena of the Ndebele Tribe (Zimbabwe)
Sinqobile Bahle Mabhena-Sibanda succeeded her father as the first female chief of the country's second largest tribe. (b. 1974-).

1996-97 Chairperson of the Council of State Ruth Sando Perry, Liberia

1985-96 senator. Appointed to Chair the Council of Statepreparing the transfer to democracy after many years of civil war. The Vice-Chairperson of the Council was Victoria Refell. (b. 1937-).

1999- Erelu Oba Princess (Chief) Abimbola Dosumu-Shitta of Saki (Nigeria)

She also became the first Yeye Omobalufon of Lagos and the first Ereluy Oba of Lagos. She is a member of the Dosumu royal family of Lagos and the Ado ruling house of Saki. Her husband died in December 1998.

1999- Queen Mother of Babété (Cameroon)

She was regent for her son, King Sob Ngoumbo Soumo (b. 1993-) who was elected by the 60.000 members of the tribe to succeed his father King Soumo I, who died august 1998. Sob has 23 siblings.

Ca. 2000- Chieftainess Noiseko Gayilla of the Amambombo Tribe at Keiskammahoek in Eastern Cape (South Africa)
In 2000 elected to the Eastern Cape House of Traditional Leaders.

Before 2000- Senior Chieftainess Nopharkamisa Mditshwa of the Pondomise Tribe (South Africa)
Head of one of the Xhosa speaking tribes in Sout Africa.

Before 2000- Chieftainess Mwene (Queen) Kabulwebulwe of the Nkoya People of Mumbwa District and the surrounding areas. (Zambia)
The Nkoya people are the first people to have settled in the area between 700 and 1400 AD. The Kabulwebulwe royal throne is part of the larger Nkoya Royal Establishment within the Nkoya State whose capital is based in present day Kaoma.

Before 2000- Senior Chieftainess Nawaitwika of Nakonde (Zambia)

The tribe lives in northeastern Zambia, near the border with Tanzania.

2000- Chieftainess Nio Sikori of the AmaRharbe Kingdom (Zambia)

2000-The Deji Princess Adeyinka Adesia of Akureland (Nigeria)
The 44th regent of the State and 4th of her own dynasty, assuming the regency during a vacancy at the throne. She lived in USA when her father died. (b. 1950-).

2000- Kgôsi Rebecca Banika of the Chobe District (Botswana)
Not a Paramount Chief but was apparently the first female ruler to be member of the House of Chiefs.

2000-03 Regent Princess Muriel Mosadi Seboko of the BaLete(Botswana)
2003- Paramount Chief, Kgosi
Supported by her mother and 6 sisters, she challenged the appointment of a male cousin as regent after the death of her only brother, Kgosi Seboko II. She was then reluctantly accepted as regent. The following year, she demanded to be appointed as the rightful chief. The royal uncles argued that she could not be a hereditary chief because custom dictated that only males could rule, but at at a historic kgotla meeting in Ramotswa in December 2001, attended by hundreds of BaLete and the royal family she argued that excluding her from the throne because she was a woman amounted to discrimination. She pointed out that she should be appointed not on the basis of tradition but on Botswana’s constitution, which she explained guarantees freedom from discrimination on the basis of gender, religion and so on, and she was then elected the first female Paramount Chief. She took up her official duties in the Ntlo-ya-Dikgosi where she was immediately appointed as leader of the house. Her coronation on 3 September 2003 attracted many people and the event was widely reported in the national and international media. The leopard skin was draped on her by her uncles Kgosi Tshukudu Mokgosi (chief of BaLete in South Africa) and Lucas Manyane Mangope (former President of the puppet apartheid state of Bophuthatswana in South Africa).

Before 2000- Paramount Chief Madam Thompson-Seibureh (Sierra Leone)
As paramount chief she was elected as leader of the local administration.

Before 2000- Paramount Chief Madam Susan Caulker (Sierra Leone)
As paramount chief she was elected as leader of the local administration.

2000-The Deji Princess Adeyinka Adesia of Akureland (Nigeria)
She is the 44th regent of the State and 4th of her own dynasty, acting as regent during a vacancy at the throne. She lived in USA when her father died. (b. 1950-).

Before 2000- Senior Chieftainess Waitwikas of Nakonde (Zambia)

Before 2000- Chieftainess Kabulwebulwe of the Nkoya People in the Mumbwa District (Zambia)

2000- Chieftainess Nio Sikori of the AmaRharbe Kingdom (Zambia)

2001-02 Premier Minister Mame Madior Boye, Sénégal

Before becoming Chief of the Government, she was Assistant to the Attorney General of the Republic, judge and first vice President of the Regional High Court in Dakar and former President of the Court of Appeal in Dakar. Councillor to the Supreme Court of Appeal and Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals in 2000-2001. In 2002 she took over as Minister of Defence after the former incumbent resigned after almost 1.000 persons died in a ferry-disaster. (b.1940-).

2001- Temporary Regent HM Queen Karabo Mohato Bereng Seeiso of Lesotho

At 16th of January she was sworn in for the first time asregent by the chief justice about a year after she married King Letsie III, and has acted regent and Deputy Head of State on various occasions since then. She continues her biology-studies by correspondence. (b. 1976-).

Before 2001- Kgôsi Rebecca Banika of Chobe District (Botswana)

She is not a Paramount Chief but was apparently the first female member of the House of Chiefs.

2001- Paramount Chief, Kgosi Mosadi Seboko a Mokgôsi of the Balete (Botswana)

On the 3rd of December 2001 She was elected to succeed her brother Seboko II Mokgôsi (1959-2001) She was chosen in a well attended meeting, traditionally called kgotla. against the wishes of her paternal uncles who wanted to uphold the tradition of male succession. She became Chairperson of the House of Chiefs before her formal installation as Chief of the Bagamalete in 2003.(b. 1950-).

2002-03 and 2003-04 Prime Minister Maria das Neves Ceita Batista de Sousa, Republic of São Tomé e Príncipé
Maria das Neves worked as a civil servant in the Ministry of Finance and in the African Development Bank. 1999-2001 Minister of Economics, Agriculture, Fisheries, Commerce and Tourism, 2001-02 Minister of Finance and 2002 Minister of Industry, Commerce and Tourism. On 16th of July 2003 she was detained during a military coup and suffered a mild hart attack. on the 23rd the government was reinstated, and she again became Chief of the Government. The following year she was dismissed after alegations of curruption. (b. 1958-).

2002- Assistant Chief Neima Kimojino of the Embulul Sub-Location, Ngong Division of the Kajiado District (Kenya)
First female chief of the Massai Tribe. (b. 1959-).

Philla Shilubana2002- Chief (Hosi) Philla Shilubana of the Valoyi (South Africa)
Became leader of the 200.000-strong tribe in Limpopo. In 1962 her fahter, Chief Fofoza Nwamitwa, first expressed the view that she should succeed him. When he died in 1968 her uncle, Richard Nwamitwa, was appointed to rule the tribe with her support, and later became acting chief, but was later made chief by the Bantu Affairs Commission without the consent of the royal family or the council. In December 1996 the royal family unanimously decided to transfer the chieftainship to Shilubana, who was appointed chief of the tribe by her uncle and members of the tribe in 1997, but since she was an ANC MP he continued to act. In 1999 he withdrew his support for her but her appointment was approved by the government in 2002, but it was challenged by her cousin. Since she has only daughters, she has taken a "candle" wife who will bear the future heir. The identity of this wife is a closely guarded secret. In 2004 her cousin won the right to the title at a lower court but she has appealed the ruling.

2002- Senior Chieftainess Nawaitwika of the Namwanga Tribe in the Nakonde area (Zambia)
The tribe lives in northeastern Zambia, near the border with Tanzania.

Makobo Caroline Modjadji VI2003-05 Rain Queen Makobo Modjadji VI of Balobedu (South Afcica)
Elected to succeed her grandmother because her mother,Princess Makhaele' Maria Modjadji, died two days later than her mother, Rain Queen Mokope Modjadji V (1937-81-2001). Like her predecessors, she had the ability to control the clouds and rivers. Although respected for her abilities and lineage, she was seen as too modern to be the next Rain Queen, which may have been why there was such a long delay before she was crowned. Custom dictated that rain queens live reclusive lives, hidden in the royal kraal with their 'wives'. She, however, liked to wear jeans and T-shirts, visit nearby discos, watch soap operas and chat on her cell phone. There is a lot of controversy surrounding her death. Some villagers believe she died from a broken heart when her lover David Mogale was banned from the Royal Village by the Royal Council to put and end to their love affair. Mogale himself claims that the Royal Council poisoned Makobo as they saw her unfit to hold the much-revered position of Rain Queen, and this was the easiest way to have her removed. Hospital staff believed she died of AIDS, but officialy she died of Chronic Meningitis. Because her daughter, Princess Masalanabo, is fathered by a commoner, the traditionalists are not likely to accept her as the rightful heiress to the Rain Queen Crown. Therefore there are worries that the 400-year old Rain Queen dynasty may be coming to an end. No new Rain Queen has been chosen since her death. Makobo Constance Modjadji VI lived (1978-2005).

2004- Vice-President Joyce Mujuru, Zimbabwe
She was general during the anti-colonial under the name of Teurai-Ropa Nhongo. Also ZANU-Party Secretary of Education. 1980 Minister of Youth, Sport and Recreation,1980-85 Minister of Community Development and Women's Affairs, 1985-88 Minister of State by the Prime Minister,1988-92 Minister of Community Development, Cooperatives and Women’ Affairs, 1992-96 Resident Minister and Governor of Mashonaland Central, 1996-97 Minister of Information, Post and Telecommunication Since 1997 Minister of Rural Resources and Water Development and in 2001 Acting Minister of Defence
Former Secretary and from 2
004 Vice-President of ZANU-P. (b. 1955-).

2004- Prime Minister Luísa Días Diogo, Moçambique
Head of Department in the Ministry of Finance 1986-89, National Budget Director 1982-89 in Ministry of Planning and Finance, worked in World Bank 1993-94. worked in World Bank 1993-94. 1994-2000 Vice-Minister and Minister of Planning and Finance 2000-05. Mother of three children. (b. 1958-).

Nana Ekua Bri II (Anna Ekua Saakwa)2004- Chieftainess Nana Ekua Bri II of Apraponso (Ghana)
Also known as Anna Ekua Saakwa she is head of the 1.500 inhabitants of the village of Apraponso and of the surrounding villages in the Mpohor-Wassa Traditional Area of the Western Region as a subordonate of the local king. During the inaguration-ceremony she swore the customary oath to the chiefs and people at the Apraponso Royal Ground, holding the state sword in her right hand, espoused the greatness, achievements and conquests of her ancestors and pledge to blaze their trail. She is a Social Democrat member of the City Council of Copenhagen and continues to live in Denmark. (b. 1958-).

2004- Regent Kgosigadi Kealetile Moremi of the BaTawana (Botswana)
Her brother, Paramount Chief, Kgosi Tawana II, resigned toParamount Chief, Kgosi Tawana II, to stand as a BDP candidate for Maun West, and when the party rejected his candidature, he instead went into private business. Initially her uncle served as regent, but she was appointed as his successor after some initial opposition, and will be in office until Tawana's son reaches the age of majoirty. In May 2004 she was welcomed in the House of Chiefs at a ceremony attended by her mother, Princess Derby Moremi and other royals amidst ululation and dancing.

2005-08 Deputy President Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, South Africa

1996-99 Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade, 1999-2005Minister of Minerals and Energy, Acting Minister of Arts and Culture in 2004 and appointed Acting President in 2004 from 28.07 to 30.07 and in 2005 on 23.01. (b. 1955-).

2005-06 2. Vice-President Alice Nzomukunda, Burundi

As Deputy Chief of State and Government, she is responsible for Economic and Social issuesSecretary General of the Transitional National Assembly 2004-05 and Spokesperson of RAFEBU (Ralliement des associations des Femmes Burundaises) and the League of the Women of CNDD-FDD.

2005-07 Prime Minister Maria do Carmo Silveira, São Tomé e Princípe

Governor of the National Bank 1999-2005 and member of the Political Bureau of the Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tomé-Social Democratic Party, MLSTP-PSD. Also Minister of Finance from 2005. (b. 1961-).

2005- Mwadinomho Martha Kristian Nelumbu of Oukwanyama, Nambia

Queen Martha's surname is also spelled Nelumbo. She succeeded her cousin,Shelongo, as chief of the tribe thereby becoming the second female leader of the tribe after Ohamba Nekoto, who ruled parts of the territory ca. 1891-1908. (b. 1930-).

2005-08 Alcinda Abreu, Moçambique

Alcinda Antonio de Abreu was MP 1977-94, Minister of Social Action Co-ordination 1994-97 and later among others Advisor of the Prime Minister. (b. 1953-).

2005-06 Minister of Foreign Affairs Sidibé Fatoumata Kaba, Guinea

Worked in the Foreign Ministry since 1980 from 2000 as Director of Political and Cultural Affairs with rank of Ambassador. 2002-05 Ambassador to Nigeria. Mother of 3 children.


2005- Minister of Foreign Affairs Antoinette Batumubwira, Burundi

Also in charge of International Cooperation. Her husband, Jean-Marie Ngendahayo, was Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95 and of Interior in 2005. Lived in exile in Finland during the civil war.

2006- President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia

1972-73 and 1977-79 Secretary of State of Finance, 1979-80 Minister of Finance, 1980 President of the National Bank, 1980-85 Leading Member of the Opposition, 1985-86 in Prison, 1990-94 Leading member of exile-government of Amos Sawyer in United States of America, 1994-97 African Director of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program). From 1997 Leader of the Unity Party. (b. 1938-).

2006-08 2. Vice-President Marina Barampama, Burundi
Secretary General of the Women's Leauge of the Cndd-fdd Party from 2006.

2006-07 Minister of Foreign Affairs Asha-Rose Migiro, Tanzania

2000-06 Minister for Community Development, Women’s and Children’s Affairs. Deputy Secretary General of the Únited Nations.

2006-07 Minister of Foreign Affairs Mariam Aladji Boni Diallo, Benin
Mariam Aladji Boni épouse Diallo was Ambassador and General Secretary of the Ministry until her appointment.

2006- Minister of Foreign Affairs Joyce Banda, Malawi

She was Minister of Women, Child Welfare and Community Service 2004-06.(b. 1954-).

2006 Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria

Former Vice-President of the World Bank and Corporate Secretary. Minister of Finance 2003-06, and when she was appointed Foreign Affairs in June 2006, she continued as the Head of the Economic Reform Team, but resigned from the government after being fired from this post in August.

2006-07 Minister of Foreign Affairs Joy Ogwu, Nigeria

Professor of International Affairs and Director of the Foreign Affairs Institute through many years. (b. 1946-).

2007- Chief Napoaka Ziiri Thérèse Léotine Kaboré, épouse Yaméogo of a District in Issouka (Burkino Faso)

Appointed chief by Modeste Yaméogo, the Naaba Saaga, traditional chief of Issouka. She is in charge of one district of almost 5,000 people, and has got the power to judge cases, settle disputes and, most important, grant land use to the people under her rule. This is especially important in a country where most people earn a living by farming. (b. 1947-).

2007-09 Foreign Minister Maria da Conceição Nobre Cabral, Guinea Bissau

Also Minister of International Cooperation and the Communities Abroad.

2007- Olubanke King-Akerele, Liberia

Also known as Olubanke Akerele, Olubanke Yetunde or Olu Bankie, she worked 20 years as Deputy Director for the United Nations Development Program for Women and then United Nations Development Program Representative in Mauritius and Seychelles prior to her appointment as Minister of Commerce and Industry in 2006. She is the granddaughter of former Liberian president Charles DB King.

2007- Minister of Foreign Affairs and International CooperationZainab Hawa Bangura, Sierra Leone

Co-founder and Chairperson of the Movement for Progress in 2002 and Presidential Candidate the same year and hief Civil Affairs Officer of the United Nations Mission in Liberia from 2005. (b.1959-).

Iv Matsepe-Casaburri2008 Acting President Dr. Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri, South Africa
Premier of the Free State 1996-99, Federal Minister of Communication since 1999. Acting President on one or two occations in 2003 and Member of the Pool of Possible Acting Presidents from 2005 and on 25. September, she was Acting Executive after the resignation of the President until a successor was elected and sworn in. (b. 1937-).

2008- Deputy President Baleka Mbete, South Africa

Chairperson of the (ANC) Parliamentary caucus 1995-96,Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly 1996-2004 and Speaker 2004-08. When the President resigned in September 2008 it was expected that she would be named Acting President for the period until April 2009, but this position went to a man, who appointed her as Deputy President. (b. 1949-).

2008 Foreign Minister Laure Olga Gondjout, Gabon

Presidential Councilllor from 1984 and later Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Ministers and Private Secretary of President Omar Bongo Ondimba. Minister-Delegate of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation, the Francophonie and Regional Integration 2006-07, Minister of Communication, Post and Telecommunications, the New Technologies and Information 2007-08, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation, the Francophonie and Regional Integration from 2008. Her father was Senator in the French Union and later President of the National Assembly of Gabon. (b. 1953-).

2008- Foreign Minister Rosemary Kobusingye Museminari, Rwanda

2000-05 Ambassador to United Kingdom, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and the Republic of Irelandand 2005-08 Minister of State of Cooperation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (b. 1962-).

Philla Shilubana, Chief of the of the Valoyi 2008- Hosi (Chief) Tinyiko Lwandhlamuni Philla Nwamita Shilubana of the Valoyi (Souh Africa)
When her father, Hosi Fofoza Nwamitwa, died in 1968 without a male heir, her uncle became chief because customary law athe time did not permit a woman to become Hosi. During 1996 and 1997 the traditional authorities of the community passed resolutions deciding that she would succeed her uncle,
since in the new constitutional era women were equal to men. And her succession was approved by the provincial government. However, following the death of her uncle 2001, her cousin interdicted her installation and challenged her succession, claiming that the tribal authorities had acted unlawfull. The Supreme Court concluded that the traditional authorities had the authority to develop their customary law under the Constitution and that her cousin did not have a right to be declared Hosi. She was elected MP for ANC in 1999. (b. 1942-)

2009- Foreign Minister Adiato Diallo Nandigna, Guinea-Bissau

Also known as Adiatu Djaló Nandinga, she was Minister of Culture, Youth and Sport 2007-08 and has been Second in Cabinet since 2008.

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